History


[Reproduced from http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/this-britain/forgotten-champion-of-islam-one-man-and-his-mosque-459936.html Thursday, 2 August 2007 )

William Quilliam was a solicitor. But in late 19th century Britain there was no other solicitor quite like him. He is said to have appeared in court wearing Turkish ceremonial dress. Others claim he travelled through Liverpool on a white Arab horse, or that he was descended from a first lieutenant who fought with Nelson at Trafalgar.

Such stories may well be apocryphal, yet Quilliam was a man whose life needs no embellishing. Few religious figures have championed their faith the way the man who became Sheikh Abdullah Quilliam did. He did so despite often facing hostility from his own countrymen. He was made the Sheikh of Britain by the last Ottoman emperor, converted hundreds to his religion, and was honoured by the Sultan of Morocco, the Shah of Persia and the Sultan of Afghanistan. The mosque at 8 Brougham Terrace was his crowning achievement.

Born in 1856, Quilliam was the son of a wealthy watchmaker, and became a solicitor after training at the Liverpool Institute. But life as a lawyer took its toll on Quilliam and in 1882 he travelled to the south of France to recover from stress. While he was recuperating, he decided to cross the Mediterranean to Morocco and Algeria and it was there that his fascination with Islam began. At the age of 31 he converted to the religion, changed his name to Abdullah and bought a marmoset as a pet.

“He never went anywhere without that monkey,” said Quilliam’s granddaughter, Patricia Gordon. “It used to sit on his shoulder. He had a little fez made for it and would even take it to the British Museum when he was studying there. He was an old Victorian eccentric. He was his own man and he did what he wanted to do all his life. When he walked into a room, everyone would go quiet. He was a very colourful character.”

His love of exotic animals turned his home into a zoo – he reportedly kept a jackal, a wolf, a fox and even a crocodile.

For Quilliam, his own conversion was just the start of his loud and proud association with Islam. He soon found he had the knack of convincing others of its merits. He first began holding lectures on his new religion and then founded the Liverpool Mosque and Institute in the small semi on Brougham Terrace, West Derby Street, in 1889.

Within 10 years of his return to the city, he assembled a following of about 150 Muslims, almost entirely made up of British converts. Scientists and professionals were among Quilliam’s group, along with his sons and his mother, who had spent most of her life as a Christian activist. He also produced two journals, The Crescent and The Islamic Review, on a printing press in the mosque’s cellar. Both were circulated internationally.

But Quilliam’s misssion did not stop at publishing. He set out to help ease Liverpool’s social ills, founding the Medina Home, which cared for illegitimate children and found them foster parents. He set up the Muslim College, a weekly debating society and also wrote a book of Muslim hymns in English.

He still found time to write a book. The Faith of Islam was published in 1899 by a small local printer and was translated into 13 languages, with three editions published. Quilliam proudly said that it had been read by Queen Victoria and the ruler of Egypt.

But not everyone appreciated Quilliam’s vigour. Soon after he converted to Islam, he was evicted from his house by his landlord, who took exception to his rejection of Christianity. The timing of his book on Islam compounded the vitriolic hatred that some in the Christian community felt for him. “The ongoing conflict with Sudan meant that the very mention of Islam in Britain was like a red rag to a bull,” says Professor Humayun Ansari, an expert in British Islamic history from Royal Holloway College, London.

Quilliam was never one to go quietly and launched a series of attacks on the British government. When the Prime Minister, William Gladstone, was due to give a speech in Liverpool urging action against the Ottoman Empire for its treatment of Armenians, Quilliam leapt to the emperor’s defence. He gathered his congregation at the mosque to make a rival speech, during which he declared the West was quite happy to ignore “Christian atrocities” elsewhere.

“An Armenian explodes a bomb in the crowded streets of Constantinople and slays innocent women and children and, because he calls himself a Christian he is extolled in England as a hero and as a patriot!” Quilliam wrote. “An Afghan fights for his fatherland in the Khyber Pass, and because he is a Muslim he is denounced as a traitor and a rebel.”

According to Professor Ansari, Quilliam paid a price for his stance. “Of course, he was lampooned, but it showed that he was a courageous man, as well as a controversial figure. Although other English people had converted, they tended to keep a low profile. Quilliam on the other hand was much more forthright and challenging, making him a high-profile public figure in the process.”

Unsurprisingly, Quilliam developed a difficult relationship with the press. The Liverpool Review described his quest to convert the city to Islam as “silly and unwelcome”. He became a regular contributor to the letters pages, attempting to right what he saw as the incorrect popular view of Islam, derived from myths dating back to the Crusades.

He wrote: “When we consider that Islam is so much mixed up with the British Empire, and the many millions of Muslim fellow subjects who live under the same rule, it is very extraordinary that so little should be generally known about this religion. And consequently the gross ignorance of the masses on the subject allows them to be easily deceived, and their judgement led astray.”

His outspoken stance also made his mosque a target of abuse. During one confrontation, a crowd of 400 protesters gathered outside the building, hurling mud, stones and rotten vegetables at those leaving the prayer hall. In 1895, a group threatened to burn Quilliam alive.

His efforts to promote Islam brought him praise and powerful friends throughout the Muslim world. The Shah of Persia made him a consul to his country. In 1894, Sultan Abdul Hamid II, the last Ottoman emperor, gave Quilliam the title of “Sheikh al-Islam of Britain”, leader of British Muslims. The Sultan of Afghanistan gave him a £2,500 “personal gift”, to help him continue his good works.

By the turn of the century, Quilliam had developed ambitious plans to build a mosque from scratch, complete with a dome and minarets. But true to his eccentric character, he took a sudden decision in 1908 to leave Britain, mysteriously heading back to the east and not returning until shortly before his death in 1932.

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[Given the interest sparked in Abdullah Quilliam by the Quilliam Foundation, it is pertinent to know the history and views of their adopted namesake and his relevance for today]

William Henry Quilliam was the son of a watch manufacturer Robert Quilliam, and a descendant of Captain John Quilliam RN, who was First Lieutenant on HMS Victory with Nelson.

He qualified as a solicitor and established the largest advocacy practice in the North. In 1882 Quilliam visited southern France to recover from overwork and crossed over to Algeria and Morocco. There he learned about Islam and at the age of 31 proclaimed himself to be Muslim.

He returned to Liverpool in 1889 to spread Islam as Sheikh Abdullah Quilliam. Converts included his sons, prominent scientists and professionals. His mother was a Methodist activist until 1893 when at the age of 63 she converted. Local Muslims gave her the title Khadijah (Mother of the Faithful). After accepting Islam, Quilliam was reported to have attended court dressed in full Turkish regalia and as travelling on a white Arab horse!

Quilliam set up a prayer and meeting room with the community in Mount Vernon Street. He managed to publish three editions of The Faith of Islam which was subsequently translated into thirteen languages. Quilliam became famous throughout the Islamic world. The Sultan of Turkey made him Sheikh-Ul-Islam of Britain and his son became British Consul General in Turkey. The Sultan of Morocco made him an Alim and the Shah of Persia also appointed him as Consul. A gift of £2,500 was donated to the community by the Sultan of Afghanistan. This was used to establish the Islamic Institute and Liverpool Mosque in Broughton Terrace, Liverpool.

A hundred Muslims could pray there. The Friday Prayer sermons were both in English and Arabic. In the basement the group set up a printing press and commenced publishing The Crescent weekly and a monthly journal, The Islamic Review which was later distributed to over twenty countries worldwide.

Nearly two thousand illegitimate births occurred annually in Liverpool during this period and many women turned to the Institute for help. To counter this growing problem, Quilliam founded the Medina Home to care for children and to find them foster families. The Institute also started a Muslim College with courses for Muslims and non-Muslims in arts, science and law. Teachers included Professor Haschem Wilde and Professor Nasrullah Warren. A weekly Debating and Literary Society attracted many non-Muslims. They were also invited to the Institute for prayers and sermons on Sunday. There was singing from Quilliam’s collection of hymns for English-speaking Muslims. These meetings brought a hundred and fifty non-Muslims to Islam by 1896!

Quilliam continually faced opposition, arguing for everything from the right to make the public call to prayer to British interference in the Sudan. As his success increased – so did the level of harassment. The muezzin of the mosque was often pelted with snowballs, stones and dirt. Firecrackers were thrown at the mosque and glass was ground into the carpets to cut the feet of the worshippers. The Church and elements of the media in particular were quite antagonistic.

On one occasion a group of local Baptists stood up in the middle of one of Abdullah Quilliam’s sermons to preach in what they referred to as the ‘heathen temple’. The leader of the band said that Quilliam was “…a man sent by the devil to deceive you and lead you into the eternal fire where the worm dieth not” and pointing to the fez caps on the heads of the members of the congregation, stated “and these are the regimentals worn by his soldiers.” In a Christian journal, ‘The Crusader’, Quilliam was described as “this arch -infidel and renegade from the Christian faith” and was pronounced as proof of possession by the devil.

Quilliam had the courage and the audacity to openly criticise the imperialist policies of the Government and denounced the colonisation and suppression of foreign territories:-

“An American explodes a bomb in the crowded streets of Constantinople and slays innocent women and children and , because he calls himself a Christian he is extolled in England as a hero and as a patriot! An Afghan fights for his fatherland in the Khyber Pass, and because he is a Muslim he is denounced as a traitor and a rebel, and his land is to be raided and his wives and children slain. Such is the British Christian logic at the end of the 19th Century in the diamond jubilee year of the reign of the Queen Empress.”

The group suffered indignities because the adoption of Islam implied a rejection of Queen and country in the eyes of the wider community – especially at a time when the Empire was at loggerheads with the Ottoman Caliphate. As well as having the ability to write authoritatively on Christianity and Judaism, Quilliam was a remarkable visionary:- “At the present time union is more than ever necessary among Muslims. The Christian powers are proposing a new crusade to shatter the Muslim powers, under the pretext that they desire to civilise the world. This is nothing but hypocrisy, but armed as they are with the resources of Western civilisation it will be impossible to resist them unless Muslims stand united as one solid phalanx.”

Within 30 years of this statement, the Khilafah was destroyed. Quilliam left for the East in 1908 and in his absence the Mosque and the Institute declined. The mosque on Brougham Terrace is now the Registry for Births, Deaths and Marriages.

On October 10 1997, Patricia Gordon, the granddaughter of Shaykh Abdullah Quilliam unveiled a plaque in the building to honour the founding of the oldest mosque in Britain and to celebrate the events that happened there. In an emotional address she recalled: ‘My greatest memory of him, is being compassionate at all times, a man of great courage and way ahead of his time, and a credit to Islam. He gave me an understanding of human emotions and frailties, in fact a catalogue of everything of everything one would wish to see in us all.’